Natural History

There are 27 species of these New World parrots found throughout the savannah, palm groves, scrub forest and rainforest of Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean.  These parrots are one of the most popular birds kept as pets and incidentally one of the most commonly relinquished to rescue groups.   Of the 27 species originating primarily in the Amazon Basin, only 10 species are kept commonly as pets.  These highly sociable birds often become bonded to their owner and frequently misidentify them as mates.  In the wild, these birds pair bond to one another and then join a small flock.  Their natural monogamy can become problematic in homes that are not equipped to handle the needs of such an attention demanding, yet charismatic birds.  With proper care, these birds can become family companions for 30-60 years with reports of some living past 80.

Home Safety

There are many things in the average home that pet Amazons encounter that can be harmful and even deadly.  Some concerns are obvious such as open flames but others such as an air freshener can be easily overlooked.

Potential Household Dangers:

  • Ceiling fans:  birds should never be out when a ceiling fan is on
  • Super Clean Windows and Mirrors:  birds have a hard time identifying glass and mirrors!
  • Electrical Wires:  dangling wires have the highest potential for issues due to birds desire to hang off or chew these “vines”
  • Aerosol Sprays:  very harmful to the air sacs and lungs
  • Candles:  the smoke even in small amounts can be very harmful to the air sacs and lungs.  Avoid essential and exotic oils used to add scent to candles as well.
  • Non-Stick Cookware: overheated non-stick cookware releases fumes that are both highly toxic to birds and have been linked to MS in humans
  • Other Pets:  this includes other birds, dogs, cats, etc.
  • Paint:  Paint from the walls of old homes may contain lead.
  • Jewelry:  Especially costume jewelry can contain zinc.
  • Tobacco smoke or residue

Diet and Feeding

Amazons are herbivores, more specifically they are frugivores (fruit eaters) and folivores (leaf eater).  In the wild these birds primarily consume seeds, palm nuts, various other nuts, fruit, and leafy matter.  Due to their social eating habits, it may be best to feed Amazons when the household is going to be near them or eating with them in the room.  It is natural for these birds to gorge themselves on a particularly delicious treat or after they have been adopted from a rescue.  This is a natural behavior.  In the wild, during times of plenty, Amazons will eat for hours on the best food they can find and store it in their crop for digestion later.  These birds are exceptional beggars and will learn all the behaviors that warrant extra treats!  Amazons also relish textures.  An excellent form of enrichment is offering various foods with different textures for your Amazon to explore.

The ideal Amazon diet consists of:

75% Pelleted Diet

  • Harrison’s
  • Zupreme
  • Roudybush
  • Lafeber

15% Natural Diet

  • Vegetables
  • Legumes
  • Grains
  • Fruit

10% Treats

  • Nuts (Pine nuts, Almonds, Walnuts)
  • Seeds
  • Table Scraps

Remember, all conversions to different diets must be made gradually and care must be taken to monitor food intake as well as weight.  Amazon parrots are incredibly prone to obesity and food consumption should be monitored and exercise encouraged with regular social interactions and activities.

Unsafe Foods:

  • Chocolate
  • Caffeine (soda, tea, coffee, etc)
  • Avocado
  • Shelled peanuts (these can contain aflatoxins on the shell)
  • Potato skins (these can contain solanine)
  • Alcohol


With Amazons, the bigger the enclosure the better!  These birds are very active in the wild and need to have ways to relieve their natural energy in the home.  Outdoor aviaries are strongly encouraged for their immense energy!  However, this isn’t always possible in the home setting and an enclosure of must be large enough for the Amazon to fully extend their wings without touching the sides of the enclosure.  Bars should be spaced 1 to 1.5 inches apart depending on the size of the species.  California King Cages are very popular and the #506 and #406 are recommended.  It is incredibly important to make sure that the cage is not constructed of any form of zinc, lead, or galvanized metal as this can cause life-threatening toxicity!

Perches should be placed at various heights throughout the enclosure with the softer perch being the highest as this is where most parrots prefer to sleep.  Toys should consist of softwood tree branches, rope toys, cardboard toys, wooden toys, and leather (vegetable-tanned only!).  Anything that can be picked up with their feet are immediately appreciated as Amazons love to manipulate and use items!  These birds are aggressive chewers, and cannot help themselves, so perches and toys will frequently need to be replaced and should be inspected daily for wear and potential dangers.


These birds, like most parrots, are early risers!  Once the sun comes up they are ready to go and will call out to their flock first thing in the morning!  It is important that Amazon rooms are well-lit and offered natural sunlight as well.  However, never place a birdcage directly in front of a window.  During the day the sun through the window can easily overheat a parrot.  Ideally, the light cycle should be 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness.  In reproductive females, this time may have to be decreased to 8-10 hours of daylight depending on the severity of the hormonal issues.  Consult your veterinarian or behaviorist before making changes to the light cycle.  There have been several studies that illustrate the benefits of parrots, especially female parrots, receiving UVB lighting as well.


These birds are very vocal and love to be the center of attention!  Generally, in the wild they are vocal while in their flock which explains why at home they can be louder especially when “flock members” are coming in the door.  One thing to remember is that an Amazon will match the decibel level of their environment which means that the louder the household is the louder the bird will be.  Being able to identify their vocalizations can help an owner understand what their bird is trying to communicate:

  • Normal:  Loud and harsh sounding
  • Eating:  Soft growls or churtles
  • Excitement: High-pitched squawk
  • Morning and Early Evening:  Loud short-lived squawking for 1-5 minutes (calling to the flock).  This is a sign of high spirits but it will get LOUD!
  • Contact Calls:  A loud call will be made to locate other flock members.  These can feel ear-shattering!
  • Screaming:  This is not a normal behavior.  In the wild, this behavior occurs during fear. Many behaviorists have found that this occurs often when there is no one home for long hours of the day.  A day at work with no one home is too long for an Amazon to be alone!  They will view household members as their flock.  However, if this behavior goes uncorrected it can become a stereotypical behavior and will be difficult to remove.
  • Repetitive Honk:  These sounds are made especially during begging when Amazons want something!

Most owners will purchase these birds as slightly younger birds.  At this stage they are incredibly affectionate and loving.  As these birds start to reach maturity (past 6 years old) their behavior tends to change and during this “teenage stage” is when most Amazons are relinquished to rescue organizations.   Yellow Nape, Double Yellow Headed, and Blue Front Amazons are thought to be the most aggressive at play, especially males of these species.  This is natural for these birds but can be a bit hard to handle.  This is not necessarily a permanent issue!

In the wild, these birds are raised in the nest and stick close to the flock and their parents during their adolescence, very similar to humans.  When these parrots begin to mature and sexual hormones start to surge, these birds will go from the loving overly affectionate birds to trying to drive away their parents.   This is normal behavior and to be expected.  It is akin to a teenage human trying to leave the nest.  This stage, however, can be very trying for Amazon owners, and especially first-time parrot owners.  As the hormones settle down with maturity, the Amazon may bond with owners strongly again, sometimes bonding to a new person in the household, as their potential mate.  Issues may arise occasionally if the owner fosters this mate relationship which can lead to aggression of the bird towards other members of the household.  Working with a bird behaviorist at this point may be extremely beneficial and prevent frustration on the end of the owner and the bird.

Destruction is often a large problem with these birds due to their natural urges to chew.  This is not meant to be a malicious act but is simply in their nature!  These super intelligent and curious birds require owners to constantly think on their toes and out of the box to create enrichment and mental stimulation.  Providing branches to chomp, ropes to climb, toys to groom/crush/throw/shred, toys that can be picked up with their feet, and mechanical puzzles is just the beginning of their daily enrichment.

Feather picking is another common concern with Amazons, especially those suffering from obesity.  There are several beliefs about the cause of this issue including inappropriate intense bonding to owners, phobic behavior, boredom, anxiety, etc.  An avian behaviorist and a veterinarian (to correct any potential underlying medical issues) are the best way to help a feather picking Amazon.  To help prevent boredom induced feather destruction, toys meant to simulate preening are highly recommended and often cherished.  Feather destruction quickly turns into a stereotypical behavior and can become impossible to extinguish.  Consulting an avian behaviorist can make the difference!

Biting, high-pitched screaming, and feather destruction are often all signs of a bored and lonely bird but they can also be signs of a medical concern.  Any change in an Amazon’s behavior warrants a veterinary exam!


Amazons, like all parrots, require a certain level of grooming on a rather frequent basis.  Grooming can be a rewarding bonding moment.  For grooming such as beak and nail trims, these are often best left to veterinary professionals as this can be detrimental to the bird if done incorrectly and is often very stressful on the bird as well.

  • Bathing:  In the wild, these birds flutter through wet leaves or fly in rain storms to rinse themselves clean.  Bathing should be offered 3-5 times a week.  Misting with a spray bottle or on a shower perch are recommended.
  • Pedicure:  The nails of these birds can become long and often sharp.  To keep proper length and to help flatten out the tips to prevent accidental injury to owners, a pedicure is recommended as needed.  Typically, for most birds this becomes a 3-6 month routine.  Some may need it more often.
  • Beak Trim:  Beaks are the hands and thumbs that birds don’t have.  Proper maintenance of the beak can become difficult in captivity.  Beak trims, especially when there is a malocclusion or deformity, should be completed by a veterinary professional.  Typically, birds may not need this done or will need it once a year.  Some birds need it more often.  An overgrown beak can be a sign of several other serious diseases.  Pictured below is a very overgrown beak from a bird with liver problems.
  • Preening:  Birds have a hard time preening their heads and neck, especially when new feathers are growing in.  Normally, in the wild, these birds would have a mate or other flock members to help groom them.  In captivity, they require assistance from owners.  This is an exceptional bonding experience!  Older birds, or injured birds, may have trouble reaching tail feathers or feathers growing in on their backs as well.
  • Wing Trims:  Wing trims are performed to prevent birds from flying with altitude.  This is NOT meant to prevent a bird from flying all together!

Veterinary Services to Consider

  • Annual Exams:  Amazons should have an annual exam performed to check the health status of your pet as well as establish a relationship with an avian vet that can be used in future emergencies and/or for long term geriatric health care.  An annual exam should consist of a fecal analysis and blood work.
  • Infectious Disease:  Testing for diseases such as Psittacosis (which can be contracted by humans), Avian Borna virus (ABV), and Psittacine Beak and Feather disease (PBFD) are important in new birds being introduced to your home or flock. Young birds may benefit from Polyoma testing as well too.  Talk with one of our veterinarians for more information on these viruses!
  • Grooming:  Grooming is ideally performed by a knowledgeable professional for health and safety reasons.

Common Health Problems

Feather Picking – This is one of the most common behavioral problems brought into the veterinary clinic.  There are numerous reasons why a parrot feather picks including boredom, pain, and pruritic (itchy) skin.  A visit to your veterinarian or Chicago Exotics for a full work up to eliminate causes is strongly recommended.  Sometimes, behavioral consultation is required as well.

Hypocalcemia – A common problem in overly reproductive hens and African Grey Parrots.  Feeding foods higher in calcium helps but may not be enough.  Look for signs of weakness, swollen abdomen from possible egg retention, shaking, falling from perch, and seizure.  This can led to a serious condition called egg retention where the eggs are not released from the body.  Call Chicago Exotics or your veterinarian immediately if you notice these symptoms.

Hepatic Lipidosis – This disease is often called, “liver disease” and can result in overgrown beaks and nails in parrots.  Typically brought on by obesity and high-fat diets such as seed-only diets.  See Amazon pictured above this section.  Conversion to pellets will be required as well as a visit to Chicago Exotics or your veterinarian as this can be life-threatening. Pictured below is what their serum can look like.  The yellow cloudy part is supposed to be clear.

Upper Respiratory Disease – There are numerous causes of respiratory problems.  Some are more serious than others but all must be addressed by your veterinarian.   Signs to look for are trouble breathing, abnormal sounds when breathing, open mouth breathing, decreased appetite, nasal discharge, and lethargy.

PBFD – Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease Virus – This is a chronic disease with signs of poor feather quality, feather loss, beak deformities and eventual death.  Although an infected adult can live many years, neonates and immunosuppressed birds can die from exposure to this virus.  There is no cure but medical management and supportive care can be attempted by your veterinarian.

PDD – Proventricular Dilatation Disease – This is a fatal disease commonly associated with weight loss despite a ravenous appetite, depression, chronic regurgitation, undigested food in feces, crop impaction and abdominal distension.  This disease can be passed from bird to bird and is ultimately fatal.  Call your veterinarian or Chicago Exotics immediately if these symptoms are seen.  Pictured below is a contrast study of a parrot with PDD.  Bornavirus is associated with this disease.

Suggested Reading and References

  • Avian Viruses: Function and Control  –  Branson W. Ritchie, DVM, PhD
  • Behavior of Exotic Pets  –  Tynes
  • BSAA Manual of Exotic Pets – 5th edition –  Anna Meredith and Cathy Johnson-Delaney
  • Tail Feathers Forum  –
  • The Perch  –
  • Amazon Parrot  –  Gayle Souck
  • The Second Hand Parrot  –  Mattie Sue Athan
  • The Parrot Problem Solver  –  Barbara Heidenrich